Blepharospasm is uncontrolled blinking and squeezing of the eyelids. This is due to
involuntary contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle that controls the eyelids. It may be associated with
head and neck movements. Progression of the condition may interfere with vision and negatively alter the
patient’s quality of life.
Treatment involves botulinum toxin injection (commonly known as Botox), a non-
surgical cosmetic procedure and in severe cases, surgical removal of the orbicularis
Blepharoptosis (droopiness) can affect the upper eyelid of one or both eyes as a result of aging, a congenital
defect, muscle deformity or neurological disorder. The condition can occur in patients of all ages, but is most
common in older patients and will likely continue to worsen with age.
Various surgical procedures are used depending on the cause of blepharoptosis. Patients may
seek treatment for medical or cosmetic reasons. Severe drooping may obstruct vision or distort the appearance of
A chalazion is a lump that develops along the eyelid because of a blocked oil gland. A
large chalazion may obstruct vision.
A chalazion may go away on its own. A warm water compress applied four times a day may promote healing. Eye drops
be prescribed. A chalazion resistant to
conservative therapy may require surgery. Do not push or squeeze a chalazion.
Ectropion is a "turning inside out" of the eyelid so the inner eyelid is exposed. Common causes include
aging, sun damage, tumors, burns and the removal of too much skin during upper eyelid lift (blepharoplasty). If
condition is not treated, the cornea may become damaged by abrasions, ulcers or infections.
Surgery is necessary to restore the eyelid to its normal position.
Entropion is a "turning in" of the eyelid, which causes the eyelashes to rub against the cornea. Entropion
usually occurs as a result of aging, but other causes include injury, eyelid spasm, congenital defect and
Treatment involves surgery to restore the eyelid to its normal position.
The skin of the eyelid is thinner than the rest of the face so it is often the first to lose
elasticity. Several factors such as aging, sun damage and smoking can cause the eyelids to droop and sag as the
supporting tissues deteriorate. Puffiness may be caused by environmental factors such as allergies and can be
temporary. Both can result in an older, more tired appearance.
Puffiness that is not severe may be helped by a cold water compress on the eyes or
reducing the use of salt and artificial sweeteners. More severe or extensive sagging
typically involves surgery to rejuvenate the eyelids.
The gradual development of facial wrinkles is common with aging. Extended sun
exposure and smoking can make wrinkles worse.
Botulinum toxin injection, commonly known as Botox, and facial fillers help soften or eliminate less severe
Excessive tearing is known as epiphora. It can be caused by obstruction of the lacrimal (tearing) system,
overproduction of tears and eyelid malposition.
Treatment depends upon the underlying cause. Options include lubrication for dry eyes, surgery to eliminate the
obstruction of the tear duct or to create a new tear duct or surgery to tighten the eyelid.
Problems in the thyroid gland’s function may lead to changes in the eye and orbit (eye socket). The combination
thyroid dysfunction and eye changes is known as Graves’ disease or thyroid eye disease (TED). Typically the eye
symptoms occur when thyroid hormone levels are too high but can occur when these levels are normal or below
It is characterized by swelling and inflammation of tissue within the orbit. This may elevate pressure behind
eye resulting in protrusion of the eye, double vision and possible damage the optic nerve. Patients may also
large openings to their eyes.
Treatment depends upon the severity of the disease. Artificial tears and ointment are used to treat dry eyes.
cases may require steroid therapy, surgery for eyelids or eye muscles, orbital decompression surgery or