Early stage diabetic retinopathy is characterized by damaged blood vessels that allow leakage into the retina.
patients may not notice a change in vision, the leakage could potentially be causing permanent damage to the
The advanced phase described as proliferative retinopathy is characterized by new, abnormal blood vessels within
retina. The new vessels have a tendency to bleed, which may lead to blurred vision, scarring and retinal
A person with diabetes should have a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year. Treatment will depend
the severity of the disease but may include laser surgery or vitrectomy surgery to remove some or all the
(thick transparent substance) from within the eye.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes damage to the macula (the central
portion of the retina) resulting in impaired central vision. Patients often report difficulty with various daily
activities such as reading and driving. AMD is more common in the elderly. There are two categories of macular
degeneration. Aging and thinning of the macula
cause the more common “dry” form. It tends to progress slowly. In contrast, the "wet" form carries a
greater risk for significant vision loss. It is the direct result of abnormal blood vessel growth behind the
The vessels tend to leak fluid and blood that damages the macula.
Treatment depends upon the severity of the disease. An ophthalmologist will discuss the various options that may
include ultraviolet protection, dietary supplements or intravitreal injections.
A macular hole may be caused by eye injury, certain eye diseases and eye inflammation, but generally results from
normal aging process. The vitreous (thick transparent substance within the eye) is firmly attached to the
portion of the retina (the macula). As the vitreous shrinks with normal aging, it may pull away from the retina.
it moves, a hole can be formed at the macula.
Vitrectomy surgery is needed to remove some or all the vitreous (thick transparent substance) from within the
Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in
adults. It is composed of melanocytes and arises from the blood-vessel layer (choroid) beneath the retina. Most
patients have no symptoms so early detection and treatment is vital. Untreated, the melanoma can spread to other
parts of the body such as the liver. Such spread can be fatal.
Treatment depends on diagnosis of the tumor and the size and is directed toward
reducing risk of recurrence. Standard treatment options include external beam radiation therapy, iodine plaque
therapy or removal of the eye (enucleation).
A retinal detachment occurs when the retina pulls away from the underlying tissue. The retina is a light
layer of tissue that sends visual images to the brain. Detachment of the tissue can lead to severe vision loss.
There are a variety of causes for a detachment. Often there are retinal tears that occur with aging. The
gel inside the eye may also shrink and pull on the retina resulting in a tear or hole. Nearsightedness, previous
intraocular surgery, previous retinal detachment in the other eye and family history of retinal detachment all
increase the risk.
Treatments based on the severity of the disease include laser surgery, cryotherapy (freezing), scleral buckle
placement and vitrectomy (removal of vitreous substance from within the eye).
This is a pulling away of the retina from the inner surface of your eye. It severely impairs your vision. Without proper treatment, this vision loss can become permanent.
This outpatient procedure is designed to seal leaking capillaries beneath the retina. It is used for leaks that occur outside the macula (the center of the visual field).
This procedure removes the vitreous humor (the thick, jelly-like fluid in the eye's rear chamber). Vitrectomy is used to treat a variety of eye problems, most commonly when the vitreous humor has grown cloudy or has filled with blood from a hemorrhage. Vitrectomy is performed in an operating room under local or general anesthesia. It usually takes one to two hours to complete.
This outpatient procedure is most commonly used to treat a detached retina on the upper half of the eye.
This disease causes vision loss. It affects the center of your visual field. It usually affects both eyes, but in some people only one eye is affected. This type of degeneration is a gradual thinning and breaking down of the macula. The macula is part of the light-sensitive retina tissue that sees fine details in the center of your visual field.
This disease causes vision loss. It affects the center of your visual field. Of the two types of AMD, it is the more advanced type. It usually affects both eyes, but in some people only one eye is affected. This type of degeneration is an abnormal buildup of fluid beneath the macula. The macula is part of the light-sensitive retina tissue that sees fine details in the center of your visual field.